Mosquito is a familiar name to many people due to their nuisance and biting habit. Both male and female actually feed on nectar or plant juice. However, females of most species require a blood meal which served as protein source in order to lay fertile eggs. Biting usually occurs at night and dusk as well as dawn. During daytime, some mosquitoes will also bite if disturbed, for instance by someone walking through the bushes on which they are resting.
Mosquitoes serve as vectors of many important diseases such as dengue fever, malaria, filariasis, encephalitis and yellow fever, which could affect human health. Diseases-caused virus and bacteria are usually transmitted to the host during the feeding process (through the saliva or contact). According to some scientists, global warming will likely increase their number and dispersion. More efforts should be concentrated on removal or treatment to the stagnant water sources where they usually breed in order to achieve a better and effective control result.
Currently, there are over 3,000 different species of mosquitoes have been identified throughout the world. Aedes sp., Anopheles sp., and Culex sp. are some of the most common species that could be found in this region. Adult length varies greatly but usually will not greater than 16mm long with the body and legs covered with scales. Depends on the species, the body colour are mostly gray to dark but some are marked with white, silver, brown, green and even blue scales. Males could be recognized by having feathery antennae and mouthparts not suitable for piercing.
Mosquito goes through the complete metamorphosis (egg, larva, pupa and adult) in their life cycle and this development process need about 40-42 days in tropical conditions. Adult males live up to a week while female life span is about 1-2 months although in nature, it could be shorter. Mosquitoes usually mate within a few days after turning into adults. At dusk, many males will form a large swarm where the female will fly into it and mate.
Mosquitoes could also be separated based on where and how their eggs are laid. For example, Anopheles sp. lays the eggs singly on water while for Culex sp.; hundreds of eggs are laid in raft shape. Aedes sp. usually oviposits at semi-dry places where the eggs can lie dormant for a few months. It will only hatch when the water has risen and inundated them. In addition, mosquitoes have also adapted to almost every kind of aquatic situation such as ponds, drainage ditches, water contained in tree holes and other artificial containers as their breeding sites. The exceptions are open or large constant water flowing area (streams, rivers, seas, etc.). Mosquito generally does not travel far (average between 8 and16 km). Their flight range is mainly depended on several factors such as species, temperature, wind current and direction.